Every February 14, across the United States and in other places around the world, candy, flowers and gifts are exchanged between loved ones, all in the name of St. Valentine. But who is this mysterious saint, and where did these traditions come from? Find out about the history of this centuries-old holiday, from ancient Roman rituals to the customs of Victorian England.
Origins of Valentine’s Day: A Pagan Festival in February
While some believe that Valentine’s Day is celebrated in the middle of February to commemorate the anniversary of Valentine’s death or burial–which probably occurred around A.D. 270–others claim that the Christian church may have decided to place St. Valentine’s feast day in the middle of February in an effort to “Christianize” the pagan celebration of Lupercalia. Celebrated at the ides of February, or February 15, Lupercalia was a fertility festival dedicated to Faunus, the Roman god of agriculture, as well as to the Roman founders Romulus and Remus.
READ MORE: 6 Surprising Facts About St. Valentine's Day
To begin the festival, members of the Luperci, an order of Roman priests, would gather at a sacred cave where the infants Romulus and Remus, the founders of Rome, were believed to have been cared for by a she-wolf or lupa. The priests would sacrifice a goat, for fertility, and a dog, for purification. They would then strip the goat’s hide into strips, dip them into the sacrificial blood and take to the streets, gently slapping both women and crop fields with the goat hide. Far from being fearful, Roman women welcomed the touch of the hides because it was believed to make them more fertile in the coming year. Later in the day, according to legend, all the young women in the city would place their names in a big urn. The city’s bachelors would each choose a name and become paired for the year with his chosen woman. These matches often ended in marriage.
Valentine’s Day: A Day of Romance
Lupercalia survived the initial rise of Christianity but was outlawed—as it was deemed “un-Christian”–at the end of the 5th century, when Pope Gelasius declared February 14 St. Valentine’s Day. It was not until much later, however, that the day became definitively associated with love. During the Middle Ages, it was commonly believed in France and England that February 14 was the beginning of birds’ mating season, which added to the idea that the middle of Valentine’s Day should be a day for romance.
Valentine greetings were popular as far back as the Middle Ages, though written Valentine’s didn’t begin to appear until after 1400. The oldest known valentine still in existence today was a poem written in 1415 by Charles, Duke of Orleans, to his wife while he was imprisoned in the Tower of London following his capture at the Battle of Agincourt. (The greeting is now part of the manuscript collection of the British Library in London, England.) Several years later, it is believed that King Henry V hired a writer named John Lydgate to compose a valentine note to Catherine of Valois.
Typical Valentine’s Day Greetings
In addition to the United States, Valentine’s Day is celebrated in Canada, Mexico, the United Kingdom, France and Australia. In Great Britain, Valentine’s Day began to be popularly celebrated around the 17th century. By the middle of the 18th, it was common for friends and lovers of all social classes to exchange small tokens of affection or handwritten notes, and by 1900 printed cards began to replace written letters due to improvements in printing technology. Ready-made cards were an easy way for people to express their emotions in a time when direct expression of one’s feelings was discouraged. Cheaper postage rates also contributed to an increase in the popularity of sending Valentine’s Day greetings.
Americans probably began exchanging hand-made valentines in the early 1700s. In the 1840s, Esther A. Howland began selling the first mass-produced valentines in America. Howland, known as the “Mother of the Valentine,” made elaborate creations with real lace, ribbons and colorful pictures known as “scrap.” Today, according to the Greeting Card Association, an estimated 145 million Valentine’s Day cards are sent each year, making Valentine’s Day the second largest card-sending holiday of the year (more cards are sent at Christmas). Women purchase approximately 85 percent of all valentines.
What ancient Greek beliefs about gods are prevalent in The Iliad of Homer? Check all that apply. Gods are gentle. Gods live forever. Gods agree with one another. Gods have supernatural strength. Gods intervene in human affairs.
Gods live forever, gods have supernatural strength, and gods intervene in human affairs are the correct answers.
.A __________ subject is a noun (functioning as the subject) that describes a group made of many parts. collective
A collective subject is a noun (functioning as the subject) that describes a group made of many parts.
What type of noun is the word in bold? A troop of boy scouts was having a bake sale yesterday.
Which three elements of speech refer to rhetorical appeal? a)tone
The correct answer is B. Logos; D. Ethos and E. Pathos
Rhetoric refers to the process, strategies, and techniques used for persuasion, in this, the main appeals or strategies used are the logos, the ethos, and pathos. As rhetoric itself each of these appeals aims at persuading the audience although each has a different focus in the case of ethos this uses ethics or the credibility of the speaker, in the case of pathos this focuses on the emotions of the audience and finally in the case of logos this uses logical statements and facts. Therefore, the three elements of speech that refer to rhetorical appeal are logos, ethos, and pathos.
What is the name of the disease that makes it to where u hate any affection/attention and makes u socially awkward?
Which paragraph does the writer use to engage the audience?
Which aspect of Stalin's radio broadcast on July 3, 1941, was most important in helping him achieve his purpose of inspiring the Russian people?
In his adress to the Soviet People of July 3, 1941, Stalin addressed the Soviet people as his peers, calling them "brothers", "friends", and "comrades", giving a note of proximity and subjectivity to the speech, in which he spoke of resisting the enemy attack in order to reach victory for their Nation.
This way of addressing the people by Stalin, made the Soviet citizens to take as own the sentiment conveyed by their leader, since he spoke them from the emotional closeness, appealing to conviction and not to his authority.
What does Romeo ask Juliet to do when he meets her? Marry him Kiss him Run away Sing songs
Romeo ask Juliet to marry him when he meets her.What is Romeo and Juliet?
Romeo and Juliet is story about two lovers who were seperated for a while, Romeo almost had someone killed because of the disappearance of his beloved. On her appearance he wanted to marry her.
There, Romeo ask Juliet to marry him when he meets her.
Learn more on Romeo and Juliet below
The following passage from The Importance of Being Earnest is an example of which dramatic element? Algernon. Did you hear what I was playing, Lane?
Lane. I didn't think it polite to listen, sir.
IF YOU GIVE ME A BRAINLIEST I WILL GIVE YOU ONE BACK!!!